early american natural history



"An American Behemoth: Peale's Mastodon."  Treasures of the APS.  American Philosophical Society. Last modified 2006. http://www.amphilsoc.org/exhibits/treasures/mastodon.htm


Audubon, James J. The Birds of America : from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories.  7 vols.  1840-1844. Biodiversity Heritage Library, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.61411


Bartram, William. Travels and Other Writings by William Bartram, edited by Thomas P. Slaughter. New York : Literary Classics of the United States, 1996.


Bartram, William. Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws; Containing An Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions, Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians. 1791. Documenting the American South, 2001. http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/bartram/bartram.html


Benfey, Christopher. A Summer of Hummingbirds: Love, Art, and Scandal in the Intersecting Worlds of Emily Dickinson, Mark Twain, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Martin Johnson Heade. New York : Penguin Press, 2008.


Blum, Ann Shelby. Picturing Nature American Nineteenth Century Zoological Illustration. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1993.


 “Biological Altruism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Last updated July 21, 2013. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/altruism-biological/ .


Brown, David. “Birds’ Cooperative Breeding Sheds Light on Altruism.” Washington Post, August 17, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/16/AR2007081602257.html .


Catesby, Mark. The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands : containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects, and plants : particularly, the forest-trees, shrubs, and other plants, not hitherto described, or very incorrectly figured by authors : together with their descriptions in English and French : to which, are added observations on the air, soil, and waters : with remarks upon agriculture, grain, pulse, roots, &c. : to the whole, is prefixed a new and correct map of the countries treated of. 2 Vols. 1729-1747. Biodiversity Heritage Library, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.62015.


Chaplin, Joyce E. “Mark Catesby, a Skeptical Newtonian in America,” Empire’s Nature Mark Catesby’s New World Vision, edited by Amy R. W. Meyers and Margaret Beck Pritchard. Chapel Hill :  University of North Carolina Press, 1998.


Farager, John Mack, Mari Jo Buhle, Daniel Czitrom, and Susan H. Armitage. Out of Many. 6th AP ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2011.


Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder. New York: Pantheon, 2008.


Holway, Tatiana.  The Flower of Empire, An Amazonian Water Lily, the Quest to Make it Bloom, and the World It Created. New York: Oxford University, Press, 2013.


Iannini, Christopher. "The Vertigo of Circum-Caribbean Empire: William Bartram's Florida." Mississippi Quarterly: 147-155.


Irmscher, Christoph. The Poetics of Natural History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999.


Jefferson, Thomas. "Jefferson's Instructions to Meriwether Lewis." The Jefferson Monticello. Accessed June 25, 2014. http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/jeffersons-instructions-to-meriwether-lewis


--- .  “'Productions mineral, vegetable and animal’ A notice of the mines and other subterraneous riches; its trees, plants, fruits, &c.” Notes on on the State of Virginia. 1785.  Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library,  ND. 167-192.


Krulwich, Robert. "Thomas Jefferson Needs A Dead Moose Right Now To Defend America." Krulwich Wonders. NPR. Last modified January 16, 2014. http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2014/01/15/262916045/thomas-jefferson-needs-a-dead-moose-right-now-to-defend-america


Lewis, Andrew J. "A Democracy of Facts, an Empire of Reason: Swallow Submersion and Natural History in the Early American Republic."  The William and Mary Quarterly, 62 no. 4 (Oct. 2005): 663-696. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3491444.


Magee, Judith. The Art and Science of William Bartram. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007.


Minkle, J.R. “Squirrel Has Hot Tail to Tell Snakes,” Scientific American. Last modified August 14, 2007. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/squirrel-hot-tail-tell-snakes/


Montiero, George. “On ‘Design’” Modern American Poetry. Accessed June 28, 2014. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/frost/design.htm .


Munro, Jane. “‘More Like a Work of Art Than of Nature’: Darwin, Beauty and Sexual Selection.” Endless Forms: Charles Darwin, Natural Science, and the Visual Arts. Edited by Diana Donald and Jane Munro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. 253-291.


 “Robosquirrels Versus Rattlesnakes” UCDavis News and Information.  http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=10187


Pascoe, Judith.  The Hummingbird Cabinet, A Rare and Curious History of Romantic Collections.  Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.


Sanders, Robert. “Hummingbird Evolution Soared after They Invaded South America 22 Million Years Ago.”  UC Berkeley News Center.  Last modified April 3, 2014. http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2014/04/03/hummingbird-evolution-soared-after-invading-south-america-22-million-years-ago/


“Squirrel Lightsaber,” Science Scope 31, no. 2 (October 2007): 8.


 Stebbins, Theodore E., Jr. Martin Johnson Heade. Boston : Museum of Fine Arts, 1999.


Tomkins, Calvin. “Man and Beast, the Narrative Art of Walton Ford.” New Yorker, January 6, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/01/26/090126fa_fact_tomkins?currentPage=all .


Wilson, Alexander (vols 1-7) and George Ord (vols 8 & 9).  American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States: Illustrated with Plates, Engraved and Colored from Original Drawings Taken from Nature. 9 Vols. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1808-14.


Wilson, David. "The Iconography of Mark Catesby." South Carolina Historical Magazine 4, no. 2 (Winter, 1970-71): 169-183.


Wirth, Thomas. "'So Many Things for His Profit and for His Pleasure': British and Colonial Naturalists Respond to an Enlightenment Creed, 1727-1777. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 131, no. 2 (April 2007): 127-147.


Wulf, Andrea.  Founding Gardeners, The Revolutionary Generation, Nature, and the Shaping of the American Nation.  New York: Vintage Books, 2012.



This site  was created through a fellowship from the William Reese Company

and completed through the  Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Library